Monday, November 23, 2009

Mahatma Gandhi

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869 - 1948) most reverently known as Mahatma Gandhi was born in Gujarat. He was called by the people ‘Mahatma’ which means great soul. The people also called him ‘Bapu’ the father. Gandhi belonged to the business community of Gujarat. He studied law in England. Towards the end of the 19th century he arrived in South Africa to represent an Indian client. In South Africa, Gandhi, once traveling in the first class compartment reserved for whites only was thrown out of a train because he was not white. He started a movement for civil rights in South Africa and succeeded in changing some rules there. He left South Africa in 1915 and returned to India. His actions in South Africa already made him famous in India and on his arrival in India he was welcomed by the Indians as a hero. After his arrival in India, he was introduced to the leader of Indian National Congress, Gopal Gokhale, whom Gandhi considered as his political guru.

Gandhi had developed while in South Africa, a philosophy of struggle for political and human rights through non-violence. He started to convince Indians to use his philosophy to achieve political rights for Indians. At that period the leader of Indian National Congress was Lokmanya Tilak who was militant and was supportive of violent actions against the British. Gandhi opposed to these ideas of Tilak but he admired the other ideas of Tilak. He agreed with Tilak that Indian political struggle was a matter of the people of India and not only of the intellectuals. Gandhi like Tilak supported a cultural and social change in Indian society. In 1920 Tilak died and Gandhi became the leader of Indian National Congress.
Like other Indians whom the British fostered to 'think like the British',  Gandhi's family also belonged to this group. Gandhi studied law in England. He dressed like an Englishman. After returning from South Africa (where he was discriminated because of his Indian origin) Gandhi changed his dressing style and began to dress like a simple Indian farmer. He remained in these simple Indian clothes even when he arrived again in England later on as a representative of the Indian National Congress, causing a complete surprise to his British counterparts. His philosophy was that all are equal and everyone should do all kinds of jobs. He built an ashram in which everyone did all different jobs. He even cleaned the toilet, which according to strict Indian customs was the job of the low castes and untouchables. Because of his revolutionary ideas many in the then elitist Indian society mocked at his philosophy. Later on, many of these mockers became his admirers and followers.

Gandhi's philosophy of struggle against the British was non-violent non-cooperation. He demanded from the Indians to restrain even if the British forces physically attacked them. He advised Indians to boycott anything British including British made garments, British universities, British courts and to refuse to follow respect and abide by British laws. He sometimes resorted to hunger strikes. Gandhi succeeded in sweeping the Indian people after him like no other Indian leader ever did before him. One of the famous Gandhi campaigns was the salt march. According to British law Indians could not produce salt, a basic food ingredient, but could only buy it from licensed salt factories, all of them were British owned. Gandhi organized in 1930 a 24 - day march to the sea and produced salt from the sea. In this march he gathered behind him the strength of hundred of thousands of people.

Mahatma Gandhi who became the leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920 did not always lead the Indian nationalist movement. There were periods when he was arrested and was completely isolated from the movement. Sometimes he severed from the nationalist movement for other causes. Even when he was the leader of Indian National Congress there were members in the Congress who did not accept his ideas. His opponents, who had other ideas about India even established movements within the Indian National Congress. In the early 1930s Gandhi even resigned from the leadership of the Congress because of growing criticism against his leadership. But from then on Gandhi became the father figure of the Congress. In 1942 Gandhi led the 'Quit India' movement.

Outside the Congress, Mahatma Gandhi also had many rivals who defied his political philosophy. His main rivals outside the Congress were Hindu nationalists. They saw in Mahatma Gandhi pro-Muslim trend. During India's independence there were many riots between Hindus and Muslims. Hundreds of thousands of people died in these riots. During these riots Gandhi, who was a Hindu, tried to be a middleman between Hindus and Muslims. Many Hindus did not like his stand and saw him as a traitor. After India's partition into India and Pakistan, Hindu nationalist blamed the Congress and specially Mahatma Gandhi for the partition. Mahatma Gandhi sometimes even attacked the Indian government as not being fair towards Muslims and towards Pakistan. He even intended to leave India and end his life in Pakistan. On 30 January 1948 a Hindu nationalist, Nathuram Godse shot him to death.

Friday, November 6, 2009


yearling n. A young animal past its first year and not yet two years old.
zealot n. One who espouses a cause or pursues an object in an immoderately partisan manner.
zeitgeist n. The intellectual and moral tendencies that characterize any age or epoch.
zenith n. The culminating-point of prosperity, influence, or greatness.
zephyr n. Any soft, gentle wind.
zodiac n. An imaginary belt encircling the heavens within which are the larger planets.


waif n. A homeless, neglected wanderer.
waistcoat n. A vest.
waive v. To relinquish, especially temporarily, as a right or claim.
wampum n. Beads strung on threads, formerly used among the American Indians as currency.
wane v. To diminish in size and brilliancy.
wantonness n. Recklessness.
warlike adj. Belligerent.
wavelet n. A ripple.
weak-kneed adj. Without resolute purpose or energy.
weal n. Well-being.
wean v. To transfer (the young) from dependence on mother's milk to another form of nourishment.
wearisome adj. Fatiguing.
wee adj. Very small.
well-bred adj. Of good ancestry.
well-doer n. A performer of moral and social duties.
well-to-do adj. In prosperous circumstances.
whereabouts n. The place in or near which a person or thing is.
whereupon adv. After which.
wherever adv. In or at whatever place.
wherewith n. The necessary means or resources.
whet v. To make more keen or eager.
whimsical adj. Capricious.
whine v. To utter with complaining tone.
wholly adv. Completely.
wield v. To use, control, or manage, as a weapon, or instrument, especially with full command.
wile n. An act or a means of cunning deception.
winsome adj. Attractive.
wintry adj. Lacking warmth of manner.
wiry adj. Thin, but tough and sinewy.
witchcraft n. Sorcery.
witless adj. Foolish, indiscreet, or silly.
witling n. A person who has little understanding.
witticism n. A witty, brilliant, or original saying or sentiment.
wittingly adv. With knowledge and by design.
wizen v. To become or cause to become withered or dry.
wizen-faced adj. Having a shriveled face.
working-man n. One who earns his bread by manual labor.
workmanlike adj. Like or befitting a skilled workman.
workmanship n. The art or skill of a workman.
wrangle v. To maintain by noisy argument or dispute.
wreak v. To inflict, as a revenge or punishment.
wrest v. To pull or force away by or as by violent twisting or wringing.
wretchedness n. Extreme misery or unhappiness.
writhe v. To twist the body, face, or limbs or as in pain or distress.
writing n. The act or art of tracing or inscribing on a surface letters or ideographs.


vacate v. To leave.
vaccinate v. To inoculate with vaccine virus or virus of cowpox.
vacillate v. To waver.
vacuous adj. Empty.
vacuum n. A space entirely devoid of matter.
vagabond n. A wanderer.
vagrant n. An idle wanderer.
vainglory n. Excessive, pretentious, and demonstrative vanity.
vale n. Level or low land between hills.
valediction n. A bidding farewell.
valedictorian n. Student who delivers an address at graduating exercises of an educational institution.
valedictory n. A parting address.
valid adj. Founded on truth.
valorous adj. Courageous.
vapid adj. Having lost sparkling quality and flavor.
vaporizer n. An atomizer.
variable adj. Having a tendency to change.
variance n. Change.
variant n. A thing that differs from another in form only, being the same in essence or substance.
variation n. Modification.
variegate v. To mark with different shades or colors.
vassal n. A slave or bondman.
vaudeville n. A variety show.
vegetal adj. Of or pertaining to plants.
vegetarian n. One who believes in the theory that man's food should be exclusively vegetable.
vegetate v. To live in a monotonous, passive way without exercise of the mental faculties.
vegetation n. Plant-life in the aggregate.
vegetative adj. Pertaining to the process of plant-life.
vehement adj. Very eager or urgent.
velocity n. Rapid motion.
velvety adj. Marked by lightness and softness.
venal adj. Mercenary, corrupt.
vendible adj. Marketable.
vendition n. The act of selling.
vendor n. A seller.
veneer n. Outside show or elegance.
venerable adj. Meriting or commanding high esteem.
venerate v. To cherish reverentially.
venereal adj. Pertaining to or proceeding from sexual intercourse.
venial adj. That may be pardoned or forgiven, a forgivable sin.
venison n. The flesh of deer.
venom n. The poisonous fluid that certain animals secrete.
venous adj. Of, pertaining to, or contained or carried in a vein or veins.
veracious adj. Habitually disposed to speak the truth.
veracity n. Truthfulness.
verbatim adv. Word for word.
verbiage n. Use of many words without necessity.
verbose adj. Wordy.
verdant adj. Green with vegetation.
verification n. The act of proving to be true, exact, or accurate.
verify v. To prove to be true, exact, or accurate.
verily adv. In truth.
verity n. Truth.
vermin n. A noxious or troublesome animal.
vernacular n. The language of one's country.
vernal adj. Belonging to or suggestive of the spring.
versatile adj. Having an aptitude for applying oneself to new and varied tasks or to various subjects.
version n. A description or report of something as modified by one's character or opinion.
vertex n. Apex.
vertical adj. Lying or directed perpendicularly to the horizon.
vertigo n. Dizziness.
vestige n. A visible trace, mark, or impression, of something absent, lost, or gone.
vestment n. Clothing or covering.
veto n. The constitutional right in a chief executive of refusing to approve an enactment.
vicarious adj. Suffered or done in place of or for the sake of another.
viceroy n. A ruler acting with royal authority in place of the sovereign in a colony or province.
vicissitude n. A change, especially a complete change, of condition or circumstances, as of fortune.
vie v. To contend.
vigilance n. Alert and intent mental watchfulness in guarding against danger.
vigilant adj. Being on the alert to discover and ward off danger or insure safety.
vignette n. A picture having a background or that is shaded off gradually.
vincible adj. Conquerable.
vindicate v. To prove true, right, or real.
vindicatory adj. Punitive.
vindicative adj. Revengeful.
vinery n. A greenhouse for grapes.
viol n. A stringed instrument of the violin class.
viola n. A musical instrument somewhat larger than a violin.
violator n. One who transgresses.
violation n. Infringement.
violoncello n. A stringed instrument held between the player's knees.
virago n. A bold, impudent, turbulent woman.
virile adj. Masculine.
virtu n. Rare, curious, or beautiful quality.
virtual adj. Being in essence or effect, but not in form or appearance.
virtuoso n. A master in the technique of some particular fine art.
virulence n. Extreme poisonousness.
virulent adj. Exceedingly noxious or deleterious.
visage n. The face, countenance, or look of a person.
viscount n. In England, a title of nobility, ranking fourth in the order of British peerage.
vista n. A view or prospect.
visual adj. Perceptible by sight.
visualize v. To give pictorial vividness to a mental representation.
vitality n. The state or quality of being necessary to existence or continuance.
vitalize v. To endow with life or energy.
vitiate v. To contaminate.
vituperable adj. Deserving of censure.
vivacity n. Liveliness.
vivify v. To endue with life.
vivisection n. The dissection of a living animal.
vocable n. a word, especially one regarded in relation merely to its qualities of sound.
vocative adj. Of or pertaining to the act of calling.
vociferance n. The quality of making a clamor.
vociferate v. To utter with a loud and vehement voice.
vociferous adj. Making a loud outcry.
vogue n. The prevalent way or fashion.
volant adj. Flying or able to fly.
volatile adj. Changeable.
volition n. An act or exercise of will.
volitive adj. Exercising the will.
voluble adj. Having great fluency in speaking.
voluptuous adj. having fullness of beautiful form, as a woman, with or without sensuous or sensual quality.
voracious adj. Eating with greediness or in very large quantities.
vortex n. A mass of rotating or whirling fluid, especially when sucked spirally toward the center.
votary adj. Consecrated by a vow or promise.
votive adj. Dedicated by a vow.
vulgarity n. Lack of refinement in conduct or speech.
vulnerable adj. Capable of receiving injuries.


ubiquitous adj. Being present everywhere.
ulterior adj. Not so pertinent as something else to the matter spoken of.
ultimate adj. Beyond which there is nothing else.
ultimatum n. A final statement or proposal, as concerning terms or conditions.
ultramundane adj. Pertaining to supernatural things or to another life.
ultramontane adj. Beyond the mountains, especially beyond the Alps (that is, on their Italian side).
umbrage n. A sense of injury.
unaccountable adj. Inexplicable.
unaffected adj. Sincere.
unanimous adj. Sharing the same views or sentiments.
unanimity n. The state or quality of being of one mind.
unavoidable adj. Inevitable.
unbearable adj. Unendurable.
unbecoming adj. Unsuited to the wearer, place, or surroundings.
unbelief n. Doubt.
unbiased adj. Impartial, as judgment.
unbridled adj. Being without restraint.
uncommon adj. Rare.
unconscionable adj. Ridiculously or unjustly excessive.
unconscious adj. Not cognizant of objects, actions, etc.
unction n. The art of anointing as with oil.
unctuous adj. Oily.
undeceive v. To free from deception, as by apprising of the real state of affairs.
undercharge v. To make an inadequate charge for.
underexposed adj. Insufficiently exposed for proper or full development, as negatives in photography.
undergarment n. A garment to be worn under the ordinary outer garments.
underman v. To equip with less than the full complement of men.
undersell v. To sell at a lower price than.
undersized adj. Of less than the customary size.
underhanded adj. Clandestinely carried on.
underlie v. To be the ground or support of.
underling n. A subordinate.
undermine v. To subvert in an underhand way.
underrate v. To undervalue.
understate v. To fail to put strongly enough, as a case.
undervalue v. To underestimate.
underworld n. Hades.
underwrite v. To issue or be party to the issue of a policy of insurance.
undue adj. More than sufficient.
undulate v. To move like a wave or in waves.
undulous adj. Resembling waves.
unfavorable adj. Adverse.
ungainly adj. Clumsy.
unguent n. Any ointment or lubricant for local application.
unicellular adj. Consisting of a single cell.
univalence n. Monovalency.
unify v. To cause to be one.
unique adj. Being the only one of its kind.
unison n. A condition of perfect agreement and accord.
unisonant adj. Being in a condition of perfect agreement and accord.
Unitarian adj. Pertaining to a religious body that rejects the doctrine of the Trinity.
unlawful adj. Illegal.
unlimited adj. Unconstrained.
unnatural adj. Artificial.
unnecessary adj. Not essential under the circumstances.
unsettle v. To put into confusion.
unsophisticated adj. Showing inexperience.
unspeakable adj. Abominable.
untimely adj. Unseasonable.
untoward adj. Causing annoyance or hindrance.
unutterable adj. Inexpressible.
unwieldy adj. Moved or managed with difficulty, as from great size or awkward shape.
unwise adj. Foolish.
unyoke v. To separate.
up-keep n. Maintenance.
upbraid v. To reproach as deserving blame.
upcast n. A throwing upward.
upheaval n. Overthrow or violent disturbance of established order or condition.
upheave v. To raise or lift with effort.
uppermost adj. First in order of precedence.
uproarious adj. Noisy.
uproot v. To eradicate.
upturn v. To throw into confusion.
urban adj. Of, or pertaining to, or like a city.
urbanity n. Refined or elegant courtesy.
urchin n. A roguish, mischievous boy.
urgency n. The pressure of necessity.
usage n. Treatment.
usurious adj. Taking unlawful or exorbitant interest on money loaned.
usurp v. To take possession of by force.
usury n. The demanding for the use of money as a loan, a rate of interest beyond what is allowed by law.
utilitarianism n. The ethical doctrine that actions are right because they are useful or of beneficial tendency.
utility n. Fitness for some desirable practical purpose.
utmost n. The greatest possible extent.


tableau n. An arrangement of inanimate figures representing a scene from real life.
tacit adj. Understood.
taciturn adj. Disinclined to conversation.
tack n. A small sharp-pointed nail.
tact n. Fine or ready mental discernment shown in saying or doing the proper thing.
tactician n. One who directs affairs with skill and shrewdness.
tactics n. Any maneuvering or adroit management for effecting an object.
tangency n. The state of touching.
tangent adj. Touching.
tangible adj. Perceptible by touch.
tannery n. A place where leather is tanned.
tantalize v. To tease.
tantamount adj. Having equal or equivalent value, effect, or import.
tapestry n. A fabric to which a pattern is applied with a needle, designed for ornamental hangings.
tarnish v. To lessen or destroy the luster of in any way.
taut adj. Stretched tight.
taxation n. A levy, by government, of a fixed contribution.
taxidermy n. The art or process of preserving dead animals or parts of them.
technic adj. Technical.
technicality n. Something peculiar to a particular art, trade, or the like.
technique n. Manner of performance.
technography n. The scientific description or study of human arts and industries in their historic development.
technology n. The knowledge relating to industries and manufactures.
teem v. To be full to overflowing.
telepathy n. Thought-transference.
telephony n. The art or process of communicating by telephone.
telescope v. To drive together so that one slides into the another like the sections of a spy-glass.
telltale adj. That gives warning or information.
temerity n. Recklessness.
temporal adj. Pertaining to or concerned with the affairs of the present life.
temporary adj. Lasting for a short time only.
temporize v. To pursue a policy of delay.
tempt v. To offer to (somebody) an inducement to do wrong.
tempter n. An allurer or enticer to evil.
tenacious adj. Unyielding.
tenant n. An occupant.
tendency n. Direction or inclination, as toward some objector end.
tenet n. Any opinion, principle, dogma, or doctrine that a person believes or maintains as true.
tenor n. A settled course or manner of progress.
tense adj. Strained to stiffness.
tentative adj. Done as an experiment.
tenure n. The term during which a thing is held.
tercentenary adj. Pertaining to a period of 300 years.
termagant adj. Violently abusive and quarrelsome.
terminal adj. Pertaining to or creative of a boundary, limit.
terminate v. To put an end or stop to.
termination n. The act of ending or concluding.
terminus n. The final point or goal.
terrify v. To fill with extreme fear.
territorial adj. Pertaining to the domain over which a sovereign state exercises jurisdiction.
terse adj. Pithy.
testament n. A will.
testator n. The maker of a will.
testimonial n. A formal token of regard, often presented in public.
thearchy n. Government by a supreme deity.
theism n. Belief in God.
theocracy n. A government administered by ecclesiastics.
theocrasy n. The mixed worship of polytheism.
theologian n. A professor of divinity.
theological adj. Based on or growing out of divine revelation.
theology n. The branch of theological science that treats of God.
theoretical adj. Directed toward knowledge for its own sake without respect to applications.
theorist n. One given to speculating.
theorize v. To speculate.
thereabout adv. Near that number, quantity, degree, place, or time, approximately.
therefor adv. For that or this.
thermal adj. Of or pertaining to heat.
thermoelectric adj. Denoting electricity produced by heat.
thermoelectricity n. Electricity generated by differences of temperature,
thesis n. An essay or treatise on a particular subject.
thoroughbred adj. Bred from the best or purest blood or stock.
thoroughfare n. A public street or road.
thrall n. One controlled by an appetite or a passion.
tilth n. Cultivation.
timbre n. The quality of a tone, as distinguished from intensity and pitch.
timorous adj. Lacking courage.
tincture n. A solution, usually alcoholic, of some principle used in medicine.
tinge n. A faint trace of color.
tipsy adj. Befuddled with drinks.
tirade n. Harangue.
tireless adj. Untiring.
tiresome adj. Wearisome.
Titanic adj. Of vast size or strength.
toilsome adj. Laborious.
tolerable adj. Moderately good.
tolerance n. Forbearance in judging of the acts or opinions of others.
tolerant adj. Indulgent.
tolerate v. To passively permit or put up with.
toleration n. A spirit of charitable leniency.
topography n. The art of representing on a map the physical features of any locality or region with accuracy.
torpor n. Apathy.
torrid adj. Excessively hot.
tortious adj. Wrongful.
tortuous adj. Abounding in irregular bends or turns.
torturous adj. Marked by extreme suffering.
tractable adj. Easily led or controlled.
trait n. A distinguishing feature or quality.
trajectory n. The path described by a projectile moving under given forces.
trammel n. An impediment.
tranquil adj. Calm.
tranquilize v. To soothe.
tranquility n. Calmness.
transalpine adj. Situated on the other side of the Alps.
transact v. To do business.
transatlantic adj. Situated beyond or on the other side of the Atlantic.
transcend v. To surpass.
transcendent adj. Surpassing.
transcontinental adj. Extending or passing across a continent.
transcribe v. To write over again (something already written)
transcript n. A copy made directly from an original.
transfer v. To convey, remove, or cause to pass from one person or place to another.
transferable adj. Capable of being conveyed from one person or place to another.
transferee n. The person to whom a transfer is made.
transference n. The act of conveying from one person or place to another.
transferrer n. One who or that which conveys from one person or place to another.
transfigure v. To give an exalted meaning or glorified appearance to.
transfuse v. To pour or cause to pass, as a fluid, from one vessel to another.
transfusible adj. Capable of being poured from one vessel to another.
transfusion n. The act of pouring from one vessel to another.
transgress v. To break a law.
transience n. Something that is of short duration.
transient n. One who or that which is only of temporary existence.
transition n. Passage from one place, condition, or action to another.
transitory adj. Existing for a short time only.
translate v. To give the sense or equivalent of in another language or dialect.
translator n. An interpreter.
translucence n. The property or state of allowing the passage of light.
translucent adj. Allowing the passage of light.
transmissible adj. That may e sent through or across.
transmission n. The act of sending through or across.
transmit v. To send trough or across.
transmute v. To change in nature, substance, or form.
transparent adj. Easy to see through or understand.
transpire v. To come to pass.
transplant v. To remove and plant in another place.
transposition n. The act of reversing the order or changing the place of.
transverse adj. Lying or being across or in a crosswise direction.
travail n. Hard or agonizing labor.
travesty n. A grotesque imitation.
treacherous adj. Perfidious.
treachery n. Violation of allegiance, confidence, or plighted faith.
treasonable adj. Of the nature of betrayal, treachery, or breech of allegiance.
treatise n. An elaborate literary composition presenting a subject in all its parts.
treble adj. Multiplied by three.
trebly adv. Triply.
tremendous adj. Awe-inspiring.
tremor n. An involuntary trembling or shivering.
tremulous adj. Characterized by quivering or unsteadiness.
trenchant adj. Cutting deeply and quickly.
trepidation n. Nervous uncertainty of feeling.
trestle n. An open braced framework for supporting the horizontal stringers of a railway-bridge.
triad n. A group of three persons of things.
tribune n. Any champion of the rights and liberties of the people: often used as the name for a newspaper.
trickery n. Artifice.
tricolor adj. Of three colors.
tricycle n. A three-wheeled vehicle.
trident n. The three-pronged fork that was the emblem of Neptune.
triennial adj. Taking place every third year.
trimness n. Neatness.
trinity n. A threefold personality existing in the one divine being or substance.
trio n. Three things grouped or associated together.
triple adj. Threefold.
triplicate adj. Composed of or pertaining to three related things or parts.
triplicity n. The state of being triple or threefold.
tripod n. A three-legged stand, usually hinged near the top, for supporting some instrument.
trisect v. To divide into three parts, especially into three equal parts.
trite adj. Made commonplace by frequent repetition.
triumvir n. One of three men united coordinately in public office or authority.
trivial adj. Of little importance or value.
troublesome adj. Burdensome.
truculence n. Ferocity.
truculent adj. Having the character or the spirit of a savage.
truism n. A statement so plainly true as hardly to require statement or proof.
truthful adj. Veracious.
turgid adj. Swollen.
turpitude n. Depravity.
tutelage n. The act of training or the state of being under instruction.
tutelar adj. Protective.
tutorship n. The office of a guardian.
twinge n. A darting momentary local pain.
typical adj. Characteristic.
typify v. To serve as a characteristic example of.
typographical adj. Pertaining to typography or printing.
typography n. The arrangement of composed type, or the appearance of printed matter.
tyrannical adj. Despotic.
tyranny n. Absolute power arbitrarily or unjustly administrated.
tyro n. One slightly skilled in or acquainted with any trade or profession.


sacrifice v. To make an offering of to deity, especially by presenting on an altar.
sacrificial adj. Offering or offered as an atonement for sin.
sacrilege n. The act of violating or profaning anything sacred.
sacrilegious adj. Impious.
safeguard v. To protect.
sagacious adj. Able to discern and distinguish with wise perception.
salacious adj. Having strong sexual desires.
salience n. The condition of standing out distinctly.
salient adj. Standing out prominently.
saline adj. Constituting or consisting of salt.
salutary adj. Beneficial.
salutation n. Any form of greeting, hailing, or welcome, whether by word or act.
salutatory n. The opening oration at the commencement in American colleges.
salvage n. Any act of saving property.
salvo n. A salute given by firing all the guns, as at the funeral of an officer.
sanctimonious adj. Making an ostentatious display or hypocritical pretense of holiness or piety.
sanction v. To approve authoritatively.
sanctity n. Holiness.
sanguinary adj. Bloody.
sanguine adj. Having the color of blood.
sanguineous adj. Consisting of blood.
sapid adj. Affecting the sense of taste.
sapience n. Deep wisdom or knowledge.
sapient adj. Possessing wisdom.
sapiential adj. Possessing wisdom.
saponaceous adj. Having the nature or quality of soap.
sarcasm n. Cutting and reproachful language.
sarcophagus n. A stone coffin or a chest-like tomb.
sardonic adj. Scornfully or bitterly sarcastic.
satiate v. To satisfy fully the appetite or desire of.
satire n. The employment of sarcasm, irony, or keenness of wit in ridiculing vices.
satiric adj. Resembling poetry, in which vice, incapacity ,or corruption is held up to ridicule.
satirize v. To treat with sarcasm or derisive wit.
satyr n. A very lascivious person.
savage n. A wild and uncivilized human being.
savor v. To perceive by taste or smell.
scabbard n. The sheath of a sword or similar bladed weapon.
scarcity n. Insufficiency of supply for needs or ordinary demands.
scholarly adj. Characteristic of an erudite person.
scholastic adj. Pertaining to education or schools.
scintilla n. The faintest ray.
scintillate v. To emit or send forth sparks or little flashes of light.
scope n. A range of action or view.
scoundrel n. A man without principle.
scribble n. Hasty, careless writing.
scribe n. One who writes or is skilled in writing.
script n. Writing or handwriting of the ordinary cursive form.
Scriptural adj. Pertaining to, contained in, or warranted by the Holy Scriptures.
scruple n. Doubt or uncertainty regarding a question of moral right or duty.
scrupulous adj. Cautious in action for fear of doing wrong.
scurrilous adj. Grossly indecent or vulgar.
scuttle v. To sink (a ship) by making holes in the bottom.
scythe n. A long curved blade for mowing, reaping, etc.
seance n. A meeting of spirituals for consulting spirits.
sear v. To burn on the surface.
sebaceous adj. Pertaining to or appearing like fat.
secant adj. Cutting, especially into two parts.
secede v. To withdraw from union or association, especially from a political or religious body.
secession n. Voluntary withdrawal from fellowship, especially from political or religious bodies.
seclude v. To place, keep, or withdraw from the companionship of others.
seclusion n. Solitude.
secondary adj. Less important or effective than that which is primary.
secondly adv. In the second place in order or succession.
second-rate adj. Second in quality, size, rank, importance, etc.
secrecy n. Concealment.
secretary n. One who attends to correspondence, keeps records. or does other writing for others.
secretive adj. Having a tendency to conceal.
sedate adj. Even-tempered.
sedentary adj. Involving or requiring much sitting.
sediment n. Matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid.
sedition n. Conduct directed against public order and the tranquillity of the state.
seditious adj. Promotive of conduct directed against public order and the tranquillity of the state.
seduce v. To entice to surrender chastity.
sedulous adj. Persevering in effort or endeavor.
seer n. A prophet.
seethe v. To be violently excited or agitated.
seignior n. A title of honor or respectful address, equivalent to sir.
seismograph n. An instrument for recording the phenomena of earthquakes.
seize v. To catch or take hold of suddenly and forcibly.
selective adj. Having the power of choice.
self-respect n. Rational self-esteem.
semblance n. Outward appearance.
semicivilized adj. Half-civilized.
semiconscious adj. Partially conscious.
semiannual adj. Recurring at intervals of six months.
semicircle n. A half-circle.
seminar n. Any assemblage of pupils for real research in some specific study under a teacher.
seminary n. A special school, as of theology or pedagogics.
senile adj. Peculiar to or proceeding from the weakness or infirmity of old age.
sensation n. A condition of mind resulting from spiritual or inherent feeling.
sense n. The signification conveyed by some word, phrase, or action.
sensibility n. Power to perceive or feel.
sensitive adj. Easily affected by outside operations or influences.
sensorium n. The sensory apparatus.
sensual adj. Pertaining to the body or the physical senses.
sensuous adj. Having a warm appreciation of the beautiful or of the refinements of luxury.
sentence n. A related group of words containing a subject and a predicate and expressing a complete thought.
sentience n. Capacity for sensation or sense-perception.
sentient adj. Possessing the power of sense or sense-perception.
sentinel n. Any guard or watch stationed for protection.
separable adj. Capable of being disjoined or divided.
separate v. To take apart.
separatist n. A seceder.
septennial adj. Recurring every seven years.
sepulcher n. A burial-place.
sequacious adj. Ready to be led.
sequel n. That which follows in consequence of what has previously happened.
sequence n. The order in which a number or persons, things, or events follow one another in space or time.
sequent adj. Following in the order of time.
sequester v. To cause to withdraw or retire, as from society or public life.
sequestrate v. To confiscate.
sergeant n. A non-commissioned military officer ranking next above a corporal.
sergeant-at-arms n. An executive officer in legislative bodies who enforces the orders of the presiding officer.
sergeant-major n. The highest non-commissioned officer in a regiment.
service n. Any work done for the benefit of another.
serviceable adj. Durable.
servitude n. Slavery.
severance n. Separation.
severely adv. Extremely.
sextet n. A band of six singers or players.
sextuple adj. Multiplied by six.
sheer adj. Absolute.
shiftless adj. Wanting in resource, energy, or executive ability.
shrewd adj. Characterized by skill at understanding and profiting by circumstances.
shriek n. A sharp, shrill outcry or scream, caused by agony or terror.
shrinkage n. A contraction of any material into less bulk or dimension.
shrivel v. To draw or be drawn into wrinkles.
shuffle n. A mixing or changing the order of things.
sibilance n. A hissing sound.
sibilant adj. Made with a hissing sound.
sibilate v. To give a hissing sound to, as in pronouncing the letter s.
sidelong adj. Inclining or tending to one side.
sidereal adj. Pertaining to stars or constellations.
siege n. A beleaguerment.
significance n. Importance.
significant adj. Important, especially as pointing something out.
signification n. The meaning conveyed by language, actions, or signs.
similar adj. Bearing resemblance to one another or to something else.
simile n. A comparison which directs the mind to the representative object itself.
similitude n. Similarity.
simplify v. To make less complex or difficult.
simulate v. Imitate.
simultaneous adj. Occurring, done, or existing at the same time.
sinecure n. Any position having emoluments with few or no duties.
singe v. To burn slightly or superficially.
sinister adj. Evil.
sinuosity n. The quality of curving in and out.
sinuous adj. Curving in and out.
sinus n. An opening or cavity.
siren n. A sea-nymph, described by Homer as dwelling between the island of Circe and Scylla.
sirocco n. hot winds from Africa.
sisterhood n. A body of sisters united by some bond of sympathy or by a religious vow.
skeptic n. One who doubts any statements.
skepticism n. The entertainment of doubt concerning something.
skiff n. Usually, a small light boat propelled by oars.
skirmish n. Desultory fighting between advanced detachments of two armies.
sleight n. A trick or feat so deftly done that the manner of performance escapes observation.
slight adj. Of a small importance or significance.
slothful adj. Lazy.
sluggard n. A person habitually lazy or idle.
sociable adj. Inclined to seek company.
socialism n. A theory of civil polity that aims to secure the reconstruction of society.
socialist adj. One who advocates reconstruction of society by collective ownership of land and capital.
sociology n. The philosophical study of society.
Sol n. The sun.
solace n. Comfort in grief, trouble, or calamity.
solar adj. Pertaining to the sun.
solder n. A fusible alloy used for joining metallic surfaces or margins.
soldier n. A person engaged in military service.
solecism n. Any violation of established rules or customs.
solicitor n. One who represents a client in court of justice; an attorney.
solicitude n. Uneasiness of mind occasioned by desire, anxiety, or fear.
soliloquy n. A monologue.
solstice n. The time of year when the sun is at its greatest declination.
soluble adj. Capable of being dissolved, as in a fluid.
solvent adj. Having sufficient funds to pay all debts.
somber adj. Gloomy.
somniferous adj. Tending to produce sleep.
somnolence n. Oppressive drowsiness.
somnolent adj. Sleepy.
sonata n. An instrumental composition.
sonnet n. A poem of fourteen decasyllabic or octosyllabiclines expressing two successive phrases.
sonorous adj. Resonant.
soothsayer n. One who claims to have supernatural insight or foresight.
sophism n. A false argument understood to be such by the reasoner himself and intentionally used to deceive
sophistical adj. Fallacious.
sophisticate v. To deprive of simplicity of mind or manner.
sophistry n. Reasoning sound in appearance only, especially when designedly deceptive.
soprano n. A woman's or boy's voice of high range.
sorcery n. Witchcraft.
sordid adj. Of degraded character or nature.
souvenir n. A token of remembrance.
sparse adj. Thinly diffused.
Spartan adj. Exceptionally brave; rigorously severe.
spasmodic adj. Convulsive.
specialize v. To assume an individual or specific character, or adopt a singular or special course.
specialty n. An employment limited to one particular line of work.
specie n. A coin or coins of gold, silver, copper, or other metal.
species n. A classificatory group of animals or plants subordinate to a genus.
specimen n. One of a class of persons or things regarded as representative of the class.
specious adj. Plausible.
spectator n. One who beholds or looks on.
specter n. Apparition.
spectrum n. An image formed by rays of light or other radiant energy.
speculate v. To pursue inquiries and form conjectures.
speculator n. One who makes an investment that involves a risk of loss, but also a chance of profit.
sphericity n. The state or condition of being a sphere.
spheroid n. A body having nearly the form of a sphere.
spherometer n. An instrument for measuring curvature or radii of spherical surfaces.
spinous adj. Having spines.
spinster n. A woman who has never been married.
spontaneous adj. Arising from inherent qualities or tendencies without external efficient cause.
sprightly adj. Vivacious.
spurious adj. Not genuine.
squabble v. To quarrel.
squalid adj. Having a dirty, mean, poverty-stricken appearance.
squatter n. One who settles on land without permission or right.
stagnant adj. Not flowing: said of water, as in a pool.
stagnate v. To become dull or inert.
stagnation n. The condition of not flowing or not changing.
stagy adj. Having a theatrical manner.
staid adj. Of a steady and sober character.
stallion n. An uncastrated male horse, commonly one kept for breeding.
stanchion n. A vertical bar, or a pair of bars, used to confine cattle in a stall.
stanza n. A group of rimed lines, usually forming one of a series of similar divisions in a poem.
statecraft n. The art of conducting state affairs.
static adj. Pertaining to or designating bodies at rest or forces in equilibrium.
statics n. The branch of mechanics that treats of the relations that subsist among forces in order.
stationary adj. Not moving.
statistician n. One who is skilled in collecting and tabulating numerical facts.
statuesque adj. Having the grace, pose, or quietude of a statue.
statuette n. A figurine.
stature n. The natural height of an animal body.
statute n. Any authoritatively declared rule, ordinance, decree, or law.
stealth n. A concealed manner of acting.
stellar adj. Pertaining to the stars.
steppe n. One of the extensive plains in Russia and Siberia.
sterling adj. Genuine.
stifle v. To smother.
stigma n. A mark of infamy or token of disgrace attaching to a person as the result of evil-doing.
stiletto n. A small dagger.
stimulant n. Anything that rouses to activity or to quickened action.
stimulate v. To rouse to activity or to quickened action.
stimulus n. Incentive.
stingy adj. Cheap, unwilling to spend money.
stipend n. A definite amount paid at stated periods in compensation for services or as an allowance.
Stoicism n. The principles or the practice of the Stoics-being very even tempered in success and failure.
stolid adj. Expressing no power of feeling or perceiving.
strait n. A narrow passage of water connecting two larger bodies of water.
stratagem n. Any clever trick or device for obtaining an advantage.
stratum n. A natural or artificial layer, bed, or thickness of any substance or material.
streamlet n. Rivulet.
stringency n. Strictness.
stringent adj. Rigid.
stripling n. A mere youth.
studious adj. Having or showing devotion to the acquisition of knowledge.
stultify v. To give an appearance of foolishness to.
stupendous adj. Of prodigious size, bulk, or degree.
stupor n. Profound lethargy.
suasion n. The act of persuading.
suave adj. Smooth and pleasant in manner.
subacid adj. Somewhat sharp or biting.
subaquatic adj. Being, formed, or operating under water.
subconscious adj. Being or occurring in the mind, but without attendant consciousness or conscious perception.
subjacent adj. Situated directly underneath.
subjection n. The act of bringing into a state of submission.
subjugate v. To conquer.
subliminal adj. Being beneath the threshold of consciousness.
sublingual adj. Situated beneath the tongue.
submarine adj. Existing, done, or operating beneath the surface of the sea.
submerge v. To place or plunge under water.
submergence n. The act of submerging.
submersible adj. Capable of being put underwater.
submersion n. The act of submerging.
submission n. A yielding to the power or authority of another.
submittal n. The act of submitting.
subordinate adj. Belonging to an inferior order in a classification.
subsequent adj. Following in time.
subservience n. The quality, character, or condition of being servilely following another's behests.
subservient adj. Servilely following another's behests.
subside v. To relapse into a state of repose and tranquillity.
subsist v. To be maintained or sustained.
subsistence n. Sustenance.
substantive adj. Solid.
subtend v. To extend opposite to.
subterfuge n. Evasion.
subterranean adj. Situated or occurring below the surface of the earth.
subtle adj. Discriminating.
subtrahend n. That which is to be subtracted.
subversion n. An overthrow, as from the foundation.
subvert v. To bring to ruin.
succeed v. To accomplish what is attempted or intended.
success n. A favorable or prosperous course or termination of anything attempted.
successful adj. Having reached a high degree of worldly prosperity.
successor n. One who or that which takes the place of a predecessor or preceding thing.
succinct adj. Concise.
succulent adj. Juicy.
succumb v. To cease to resist.
sufferance n. Toleration.
sufficiency n. An ample or adequate supply.
suffrage n. The right or privilege of voting.
suffuse v. To cover or fill the surface of.
suggestible adj. That can be suggested.
suggestive adj. Stimulating to thought or reflection.
summary n. An abstract.
sumptuous adj. Rich and costly.
superabundance n. An excessive amount.
superadd v. To add in addition to what has been added.
superannuate v. To become deteriorated or incapacitated by long service.
superb adj. Sumptuously elegant.
supercilious adj. Exhibiting haughty and careless contempt.
superficial adj. Knowing and understanding only the ordinary and the obvious.
superfluity n. That part of anything that is in excess of what is needed.
superfluous adj. Being more than is needed.
superheat v. To heat to excess.
superintend v. To have the charge and direction of, especially of some work or movement.
superintendence n. Direction and management.
superintendent n. One who has the charge and direction of, especially of some work or movement.
superlative n. That which is of the highest possible excellence or eminence.
supernatural adj. Caused miraculously or by the immediate exercise of divine power.
supernumerary adj. Superfluous.
supersede v. To displace.
supine adj. Lying on the back.
supplant v. To take the place of.
supple adj. Easily bent.
supplementary adj. Being an addition to.
supplicant n. One who asks humbly and earnestly.
supplicate v. To beg.
supposition n. Conjecture.
suppress v. To prevent from being disclosed or punished.
suppressible adj. Capable of being suppressed.
suppression n. A forcible putting or keeping down.
supramundane adj. Supernatural.
surcharge n. An additional amount charged.
surety n. Security for payment or performance.
surfeit v. To feed to fullness or to satiety.
surmise v. To conjecture.
surmount v. To overcome by force of will.
surreptitious adj. Clandestine.
surrogate n. One who or that which is substituted for or appointed to act in place of another.
surround v. To encircle.
surveyor n. A land-measurer.
susceptibility n. A specific capability of feeling or emotion.
susceptible adj. Easily under a specified power or influence.
suspense n. Uncertainty.
suspension n. A hanging from a support.
suspicious adj. Inclined to doubt or mistrust.
sustenance n. Food.
swarthy adj. Having a dark hue, especially a dark or sunburned complexion.
Sybarite n. A luxurious person.
sycophant n. A servile flatterer, especially of those in authority or influence.
syllabic adj. Consisting of that which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllabication n. Division of words into that which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllable n. That which is uttered in a single vocal impulse.
syllabus n. Outline of a subject, course, lecture, or treatise.
sylph n. A slender, graceful young woman or girl.
symmetrical adj. Well-balanced.
symmetry n. Relative proportion and harmony.
sympathetic adj. Having a fellow-feeling for or like feelings with another or others.
sympathize v. To share the sentiments or mental states of another.
symphonic adj. Characterized by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
symphonious adj. Marked by a harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
symphony n. A harmonious or agreeable mingling of sounds.
synchronism n. Simultaneousness.
syndicate n. An association of individuals united for the prosecution of some enterprise.
syneresis n. The coalescence of two vowels or syllables, as e'er for ever.
synod n. An ecclesiastical council.
synonym n. A word having the same or almost the same meaning as some other.
synopsis n. A syllabus or summary.
systematic adj. Methodical.